Describe the Lewin Cycle? Why is it useful?
The Lewin Cycle is a psychological theory invented by Kurt Lewin. It is a 3-step proccess that seeks to explain the psychological and social underpinnings of organizational change. The first step is to “unfreeze” from the comfort and safety of the old way of operating so that you can open your mind to new and beneficial alternatives of operating. The second step is “transition” which can be a lengthy and complex proccess of many steps and requires leadership and coaching. The third step is to “refreeze” in the new way of operating and establish the change or new state as a new place of stability. This theory can be very useful to managers who want to implement and manage organizational change by allowing them to understand the psychological drivers and impediments to change and giving them strategies and tactics for effective change management.
Give a reason the implementation succeeded (don’t repeat)
A huge reason why the implementation succeeded was because Cisco built the right implementation team. They selected the best members for the team and structured the team itself in a way that would maximize collaboration. Cisco pulled their best and brightest off of other business-impacting projects to focus solely on the ERP implementation. The implementation team was structured to include members from Cisco business units(managers, business leads, IT leads, & end-users), Cisco executive leadership, consultants and executives from the software vendor Oracle, members from the hardware vendor, and members from the integration company KPMG. The implementation team was divided into functional teams or “tracks” that were overseen by two layers of management: the Executive Steering Team(Cisco Executives) and the Project Management Office. The implementation was successfull largely due to the talents of the individual team memebers, the overall structure and cooperation of the team, and the very savvy and collaborative leadership styles of Cisco’s CEO, John Morgridge and CIO, Pete Slovik.
Define the GPL License
GPL stands for “General Public License” and was originally created for the GNU project. GPL legally guarantees end-users the freedom to use, share, study, copy, and modify what can be referred to as “free software”. GPL is used as a licensing methodolgy in open-source software development where the use and development of software is free and collaborative. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU
Define Fair Use Law
Fair Use Law refers to the legal doctrine in Intellectual Property Law that legally allows for the limited use of copyrighted material without gaining permission from the copyright holder. Examples include the use of public records such as commentary, criticisms, search engines, research, news reporting, teaching, library archiving and scholarship. It permits the legal, unlicensed citation or use of copyrighted material from another author’s work. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fair_use